Life and Health
Black diamonds from the ground -TrufflesAdd to favourite
The Truffles are a symbiotic fungus, eatable, with an exceptional taste that grow on the roots of some species of trees, which formed through symbiosis, specific organs called Mycorrhiza.
Truffle is the product of a symbiotic association between a Party and a root vegetable. Through the Mycorrhize the Truffle exchanges food and nutrition.
It usually occurs in spring between April and June. At first develop as a small bucket whose sides will heal and will form a tuber. Then the body develops from this whole black truffle, wrapped in a crust with small warts or scales that, while protective role, contributes to breathing and feeding tuber.
There is something about the nature of truffles that have captivated people for over a thousand years. Perhaps it is the dazzling, irresistible aroma that continues to draw generation after generation to this delicacy. The history of these black pearls of the Earth is often filled with mystery, superstition and, at one time, damnation.
This subterranean mushroom is found within the living roots of chestnut, oak, hazel, and beech trees. The word truffle comes from the Latin word “tuber”, which means outgrowth. It dates back to as early as the ancient Egyptians, who held truffles in high esteem and ate them coated in goose fat. A myth surrounded this gourmet entrée when people believed they came from the ground after lightening struck the Earth. According to a legend, a farmer spotted his pig digging at the root of a tree, eating the mushrooms that it found. Upon seeing that the pig remained healthy, the farmer tried the mushrooms himself. Afterwards, his inability to have a child with his wife resulted in them having thirteen children. Many soon felt that there was a supernatural quality to t ruffles, and saw them as God’s gift to humanity. The Greeks and Romans used them for therapeutic purposes, feeling that they gave eternal health to the body and soul. Truffles were also seen has having exotic qualities in its aroma and flavor, making it more popular among the noble classes.
The Mysterious World of Truffle
Throughout the middle Ages, truffles virtually disappeared from sight. This is because at one time, the church felt that because of their exotic aroma, truffles were the creation of the devil. They were sometimes known as the “witch’s fares”, and for centuries, few people ate or sold them. During the Renaissance, truffles made a comeback through the reign of Louis XIV, who not only saved them from obscurity, but also pushed them into the forefront of one of Europe’s most respected dish. The king was fascinated by the nature of truffles and set out to cultivate them, which proved to be unsuccessful.
By the mid-1800s, the truffle experienced its largest production to date. Over 2,000 tons of truffles appeared throughout Europe. This age of abundance and wealth did not last long. After World War I, many of the rural lands were destroyed and the growth of truffles lowered dramatically. It reached its lowest by the 1960s, producing less than 400 tons. Recently, the production of truffles has once again risen. Scientists throughout Europe have been trying to understand how such mushrooms can be produced and have tried to grow their own truffles.
As a comparison, if the animal products, caviar are placed first, then the products of vegetable origin, truffles can occupy the same place.
In the culinary world truffles are known as the “diamonds “, truffles are prized all over the world for their interesting flavor and particularly aroma . Because the truffles breeding/growing season is short , makes truffles more valuable and causing farmers across Italy and France to go into a truffle frenzy to find these delicious tubers. In France the most famous is the black truffle, or the Perigord Truffle, while Italy has been culinary blessed with the white truffle, also known the Piedmont or Alba Truffle
In France, truffles are also called by connoisseurs "pearls of the earth", or diamond black
Under DEX, truffles are edible, culture, blackish-purple, in the form of potatoes, which grow in the ground. The truffles are fungi mycorrhiza (fungus and rhiza mykes = = root).
It is worth mentioning that exaggerate their weight in gold. In Depending on the species, season, size and price point is about. $ 900 / g or 453 pounds that is 2,000 euro / kg.At auction in Hong Kong sold a copy of 1.2 kg with 95,000 euros and another 1.5 kg with 125,000 euro.
Truffles in the world
There are hundreds of species of truffles, but the fruiting body of some (mostly in the genus ‘Tuber’) is highly prized as a food. The 18th-century French gastronome Brillat-Savarin called these truffles "the diamond of the kitchen". Edible truffles are held in high esteem in French, Spanish, northern Italian and Croatian cooking, as well as in international haute cuisine.
The genome sequence of the Périgord black truffle was published in March 2010.
Tuber aestivum /Tuber bituminatum /Tuber bonnetii /Tuber borchii /Tuber brumale /Tuber gibbosum /Tuber macrosporum /Tuber maculatum /Tuber magnatum /Tuber melanosporum /Tuber mesentericum /Tuber nitidum /Tuber puberulum /Tuber rapaeodorum /Tuber rufum /Tuber scleroneuron /Tuber separans /Tuber sinense
The first mention of truffles appears in the inscriptions of the neo-Sumerians regarding their Amorite enemy's eating habits (Third Dynasty of Ur, 20th century) and later in writings of Theophrastus in the fourth century BC. In classical times, their origins were a mystery that challenged many; Plutarch and others thought them to be the result of lightning, warmth and water in the soil, while Juvenal thought thunder and rain to be instrumental in their origin. Cicero deemed them children of the earth, while Dioscorides thought they were tuberous roots.
Italy in the Classical period produced three kinds of truffles: the Tuber melanosporum, the Tuber magnificanus and the Tuber magnatum. The Romans, however, only used the terfez (Terfezia bouderi), a fungus of similar appearance, which the Romans called truffles, and which is sometimes called "desert truffle". Terfez used in Rome came from Lesbos, Carthage, and especially Libya, where the coastal climate was less dry in ancient times. Their substance is pale, tinged with rose. Unlike truffles, terfez have no taste of their own. The Romans used the terfez as a carrier of flavor, because the terfez have the property to absorb surrounding flavors. Indeed, Roman cuisine used many spices and flavors, and terfez were perfect in that context.
Truffles in Romania
In Romania truffles are found in hilly and mountainous with deciduous and pine forests and are sold at home and abroad especially in Italy, Spain, black truffle and a white summer truffle
In Romania grow several varieties of white and black truffles
The main varieties of truffles found in Romania
Tuber magnatum Pico - Truffle white summer truffle
It has a spherical shape, with many making it irregular groove. Outer surface is smooth and velvety. Ocher color varies from pale to dark beige or green. The interior or "Glebe" is clear, dirty white and yellow with white veins. Pleasant scent and flavor, very different than other truffles garlic makes this truffle species is unique. Live in symbiosis with oak, lime, poplar and willow, and rarely can be found among other white truffles. Truffle grows and develops in special soil and climatic conditions: the earth must be soft and moist most of the time of year, should have calcium needs good air circulation. It is therefore obvious that not all soils have these characteristics and environmental factors make the white truffle is a rare fruit. Harvesting period lasts from September until December.
Tuber aestivum Vitt - Summer Truffle
Truffle summer known as the black summer truffle has an irregular shape with pyramidal warts, brown. On the outside is brown or blackish and inside ribs is rife with white-gray or yellowish white. Its intense flavor and grows in sandy and clay soil of the forest area. You can easily find in the forests of hornbeam, beech, lime, hazel and oak which grows in symbiosis with their roots. It can be appreciated and a truffle harvest in July until September.
Tuber Bruma - Winter Truffle
Are smaller than other truffles and an odor to them. The exterior is smoother than the other black truffles, dark brown or black color is blue. The interior is lighter in color: gray-white ash up. It is found in the same places as the black summer truffle, the optimal harvesting period is from mid November until March.
Tuber Macrosporum - Truffle large spore
It is a Truffle appreciated, but is rarely encountered a pretentious Truffle to climate and soil conditions. Has a fragrance similar to that of white truffle, and the exterior is reddish brown. The best time to harvest is from October until December.
It is very similar to a truffle black truffle summer but is distinguished by its intense smell of phenol. The surface is dark, with warts and is consistent and whitish inside. Grown in symbiosis with oak and hazel. The best time to harvest is from October to December.
Choiromyces meandriformis – Pork Truffle
It has a very strong smell and can reach a weight of 650g. It is sometimes found in surface soil and can be found even without dogs. The best time to harvest is from June to October.
Truffles almost any fungus that reproduces by spores. Spores are spread by insects, animals and water. Mycorrhiza spores make up the various plants, such as oak, poplar, lime and hazel. This is beneficial symbiosis is beneficial for both sides because the fungus helps the tree absorb minerals sub site, and the fungus receives nutrients from the tree resulting from the process of assimilation.
A similar symbiosis can be observed in beans and where beans help fix nitrogen in maize roots as small "bags" like the root ball attached.
Recipes and how to cook
The fungus is scraped or grated onto food and into sauces and soups just before eating. Truffle slicers have been especially designed for this purpose. Experts recommend that veal, chicken, fish, soufflés, omelettes, pasta, and rice can be glorified with thinly sliced truffles. Cream and cheese sauces avidly take up their flavor.
Insert thin wedges of truffle under the skin of a chicken and store it overnight in the refrigerator before roasting.
A well-known chef prepares a high-quality pâté de foie gras baked with a stainless steel tube running through the center. As soon as the pâté is cooked, he fills the tube with diced uncooked truffles and then removes the tub.
T. magnatum, the most aromatic of the truffles, is crushed in olive oil in Italy, filtered, and dispensed in 3-ounce medicine bottles with eye droppers. Some suspect that the crushed truffles are then packed in cans for sale in foreign markets. Call local cooking schools or specialty shops to locate this juice. Only a few drops are needed to strengthen the flavor of prepared truffles.
The pungent odor of a truffle will penetrate the shells of eggs and flavor kernels of rice when stored with them in a closed glass jar placed in a refrigerator. Once the prize truffle has been consumed, the eggs may be enjoyed in an omelette and the rice in pilaf.
Truffles can be frozen for two weeks in a freezer-proof glass jar. Another recommendation is to store them whole in bland oil.
The aroma and flavor of truffles are heat sensitive. Truffle butter is a good way to get the most from your aromatic gem since it is not heated.
Finely grate a fresh truffle and add to softened unsalted butter in proportions to suit your taste. Use enough butter so that the mixture is spreadable and not crumbly. Let stand at room temperature for an hour. Spread on crackers, French bread, or baked potatoes. Truffle butter freezes well.
Henry and Wanda are members of the North American Truffling Society in Oregon that is devoted to the collection and study of truffles. Members have made generous contributions to this book.
Cut an egg carton in half crosswise. Place 1 or 2 (preferably 2) medium truffles in each carton in the middle of the eggs. Enclose the cartons in a plastic bag and seal. Place in the refrigerator. The eggs will be ready for use after 3 days. (Do not keep the eggs in the refrigerator longer than 1 week, as their odor and flavor may become too strong, and the lack of fresh air may cause them to spoil.) The eggs may be used to prepare scrambled eggs, omelettes, or your favorite deviled egg recipe.
Makes 5 cups
This recipe was developed for the Oregon white truffle, but other truffles can be substituted.
1 to 2 ounces truffles
1 cup beef broth
1-1/2 pounds chicken livers
1/2 medium onion, chopped
1 apple, peeled, cored, and chopped
2 tablespoons shallots or green onions, minced
1/4 cup fresh lemon juice
1/4 cup cold water
2 envelopes (2 tablespoons) plain gelatin
1 cup (2 sticks) butter, cut into pieces
2 tablespoons Triple Sec
1 teaspoon salt
Dash of dry mustard
Ground pepper to taste
Clean the truffles with a soft brush. Dice large specimens to 1/4 inch and split small truffles to release the flavor. In a saucepan, bring the beef broth to a boil, then simmer the truffles for 20 seconds. Pour the broth through a sieve into a bowl and set the truffle pieces and the broth aside.
Oil a 5-cup mold or enough small crocks to hold 5 cups. Combine the livers, onion, apple, reserved broth, and shallots in a medium saucepan and bring to a boil over medium heat. Reduce the heat, cover, and simmer for 5 minutes. Blend the lemon juice, water, and gelatin in a small bowl, stirring well until the gelatin dissolves. Pour into the liver mixture and mix thoroughly. Remove from the heat and add the butter a little at a time, blending well after each addition. Stir in the remaining ingredients. Let cool 15 minutes.
Transfer the mixture to a blender or a food processor and puree until nearly smooth. Let stand 10 minutes. Pour into a mold or crock, layering in about 3 layers of truffle pieces. Cover and chill overnight. Even better, allow 24 to 48 hours to develop the truffle flavor in the pâté.
Crab and Truffle Salad
Serves 4 as a first course
1/2 teaspoon Dijon mustard
2 tablespoons sherry wine vinegar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon ground white pepper
6 to 8 tablespoons mild vegetable oil
1 to 2 ounces truffles
3/4 pound fresh cooked crab meat
1 pound asparagus, or 2 pounds broccoli cut into florets
1 lemon, cut into 4 wedges
To make the dressing, combine the mustard, vinegar, salt, and pepper. Add the oil and mix well. Add more mustard, salt, and pepper to your taste.
Place thin truffle slices between chunks of crab on individual salad plates. Arrange the asparagus or broccoli on each plate. Pour the dressing over and garnish with lemon wedges.
Pasta house with black truffles
Ingredients needed 3 ounces
200 g flour
1 / 2 teaspoon salt
5 yellow eggs
1 tablespoon olive oil
30 g of black winter truffles
salt, 1 small white onion May
100 g butter
freshly ground pepper
Preparation time: 15 minutes
Time yeast: at least 1 hour
Actual cooking time: 10 minutes
1. Knead dough from a dough of flour, salt, egg yolks and oil. If dough is too sticky raw, add a little flour. ridden in this stretch it into a transparent form and let them rise, at room temperature for at least an hour. Then stretch the dough divided into smaller pieces in a little flour, leave it for a while to dry, after which a cut in strips wide.
2. Rub black winter truffles with a nail brush under running cold water Lt. If the outer rind is too hard or we created a clean surface and no depth, then we cut the mushrooms into thin slices.
3. Chop clean white onion and sliced thin, heat the butter and onion Calima in it.
4. Keep pasta to a boil for about 2-4 minutes in hot water; meanwhile pull the mushroom slices in butter and fry constantly turning from one side to the other. Season to taste with salt and pepper, and then add them to pasta, drip of water.
Important to know
Black winter truffles are true delicacies that can be purchased only between November and March. The flavor of this type of fungus is noble and very tasty-ass unconscious, but unfortunately they are all in agreement directly with its price. Thanks to vigorous taste more than 10 grams of truffles go for a single serving.
Pasta with black truffles home - traditional Romanian Recipes
It fits perfectly a Trebbiano wine or mineral water garnished with lemon slices.
Although these are truly delicious pasta when using lots of butter, I prefer to make a, just because of many calories and 40 g of butter at the end and mix well add 80 g of double cream. At the end, sprinkle black pepper, coarse ground.
More recipes :
1. The first secret of finding truffles is that if you try finding them all by yourself, you probably won't be successful. Finding truffles requires having a few animal friends! OK, so you already knew that they train dogs to find truffles - and with their acute sense of smell, dogs are especially good at this task. Hold that thought, and in a minute, I'll tell you how you too can train your own dog to find truffles. But surprisingly, other animals can be helpful too.
2. A rodent nibbled truffle found by Mary, and Maggie, the wonder dog!
The second secret of truffle hunting is knowing that once you get into the forest and begin looking for truffles, you'll need the help of that other animal - forest voles, or mice. It seems that voles, squirrels, and chipmunks love truffles too, and if you look for evidence that they've been looking in a certain area, that's a good tip off that you'll find truffles there too. Truffles, like other mushrooms, often grow in clusters quite close to each other - so if you find one, you may find more close by. And voles will often uproot a ripe truffle, and simply leave it there! Why? Who knows? But most eatable truffles are too big for a vole to finish - so often, you'll find a nice truffle with a few nibbles gone - Take it!
3. The third secret of finding truffles is that like many mushrooms, the truffle has an affinity to certain forest trees - in other words, if you can find a particular kind of tree, you can probably up your chances of finding the kind of truffles that grow under that tree. Depending on where you live in the U.S., the tree/truffle relationship will be different. Here in the Northwest, the trees I look for are young Douglas firs (BLM plots, Christmas tree farms, etc.) Check the Resource section below, where I've included a site which discusses the affinity of specific trees and specific truffles (yes, there are many kinds of truffles - too many!).
4. The fourth secret of finding truffles is that they are always found quite close to the surface of the ground. This is good for the various animals that are looking for them - and it's good for us too! I mention this because some truffle hunters go into the woods armed with rakes, and indiscriminately begin to turn over the forest floor until the area looks like a battle scene. Please learn early to never use this method - it is generally ineffective - almost every truffle you find will be unripe! And it ruins the forest floor and the delicate mycelium (the vegetative body of all forest mushrooms), growing just under the surface of the forest floor) for any future mushrooms or truffles. In all honesty, if you use a rake like a butcher in the woods, you may be killed right there by other trufflers or mushroomers! It's that serious!
5. Now as the fifth secret of finding truffles, let me share with you the absolute best way to probe for truffles - with your bare hand! Not with any tool of any kind, just your bare hand. Remember, you're looking for evidence that animals have disturbed the forest floor (small areas of pushed up earth, and small holes in the duff). When you find such an area, push your hand under the surrounding duff, and with your fingertips, feel around for a hard, ball shaped object, generally the size of a walnut or a ping-pong ball. There may be only one, and maybe the vole has taken a few nibbles out of it - so what! Maybe there's more than one - just keep feeling around the area. When you are done, try to pull the cover of duff back into place. Yes, even your hand has done some damage, so try to leave the area as much like you found it as possible. Please practice responsible truffling.
6. So, you've found what you think is a truffle, and you've heard that ripe truffles have a smell - so you smell it. If it's really ripe and eatable, it should have a rich, earthy, garlicky, pungent smell (some think the aroma is wonderful, others think it's funky). But you may not smell anything - often, conditions in the woods are cold and wet during truffle season, and your truffle may need to warm up before it gives off its smell. Take it home and smell it again - still not much smell? Wrap it in paper towel, and put it in the fridge for a week or so - often it'll ripen there - however, if it's just too young, it won't get any riper. But if it soon fills your refrigerator with that beautiful or funky truffle smell - congratulations! Start looking for some truffle recipes.
7. A beautiful Oregon black truffle, again found by Mary and Maggie
If your truffle came from the Northwest woods and has a strong, pungent aroma, it is likely one of the highly prized ones - it may be a Tuber gibbosum(Jan-Jun) or Tuber oregonense(Oct-Jan), commonly called an Oregon white truffle. The outside color of these begin as a white, unripe and small truffle - as it grows, it may take on a more orange tone, eventually turning a brownish tan - it may get as large as a golf ball. If your smelly truffle is black, larger than a golf ball, and knobby shaped, it's likely a Leucangium carthusianum(Sep-Feb), or Oregon black truffle. If your truffle has little or no smell, it is either unripe, or not an eatable variety. Another way to determine if you have a real truffle is to cut it in half - all of the eatable truffles noted above have solid cores with unique, beautiful marbling throughout. See http://www.natruffling.org/ noted below under Resources, for both keys to identification, and pictures of hundreds of truffles - yours will be there.
8. Your best use of this first truffle, especially if it has a rich, pungent smell (or even one that is rotten!), is to use it to train your dog to find more truffles. How? Place the truffle in the toe of an old cotton sock, along with some other stuffing (some trainers like to use an old 35mm film canister instead). Use it to play "hide and seek" with your dog - make sure you reinforce letting the dog smell the sock between each search. Use a command, like "Get the truffle!" each time. Dogs like things that have pungent smells - your dog should enjoy the search. Remember to reward - food and praise - for each success, and make the search harder and harder - always using the command, "Get the truffle!" Eventually, you can move the game outside, where you can bury the sock in the ground or under pine needles. Keep the sock in the fridge - eventually it will get VERY ripe, but your dog will love it! Once your dog gets good at this game, take him/her out to the woods for the real thing. A good truffle dog is the answer to consistently finding plenty of ripe, eatable truffles - a great investment!
9.The truffles are collected in certain breeds of dog breed is best known Lagotto Romagnolo.The training for dogs costs between 2,000 and 5,000 Euros. Dogs are sniffing, and then scratch about 20 cm, sometimes over 50 cm, to give the nest of mushrooms, then sit and wait for his master to come and pick them
10 .Those who cannot afford a dog uses and pigs, but do not have the same output because they can consume.
Prices - records
The record price paid for a single white Truffle WAS set in December 2007, When Macau casino owner Stanley Ho paid U.S. $ 330,000 (£ 165,000) for a specimen weighing 1.5 NF (3.3 lb), discovered by Luciano Savini and his dog Rocco. Truffles One of the largest found in decades, it WAS Unearthed near Pisa and balance at year auction held simultaneously in Macau, Hong Kong and Florence.
The White Truffle Tuber magnatum pico is found mostly in Northern and central Italy, while the Tuber borchii, whitish or Truffle, is found in Tuscany, Romagna, the Marche and Molise. Neither of These is as aromatic as thos from Piedmont.