Top 101 Ferocious prehistoric creatures
Spinosaurus aegyptiacus- largest meat-eater to walk the Earth
A roar stirs the Cretaceous forest. What can be, who can be?
One of the most ferocious carnivorous dinosaur who rule the earth ever. His name: Spinosaurus aegyptiacus
In 1912, a German paleontological expedition led by Ernst Stromer discovered the remains of several new Late Cretaceous dinosaurs in Egypt. Spinosaurus, a large theropod, was one of the new dinosaurs. However, in WWII the first Spinosaurus skeleton was destroyed.The spinosaurous is the biggest meat eater to man.
Name Means: "spine lizard," due to its flat, large back spines
Period Early Cretaceous 112-97 million years ago
Location Egypt, Morocco, Niger
Sizes 40-60 ft long (12.6 to 18 metres), 6-20 tons, 15-19 feet tall at hips, 21-30 feet tall at the sail
Spinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the lower Albian to lower Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 97 million years ago.
The most notable feature of Spinosaurus was the 6-foot sail on its back, vaguely similar to the spines on Dimetrodon. Spinosaurus is believed to have been a powerful hunter, from evidence of related species, show how Spinosaurids and its relatives were able to hunt large dinosaurs, and catch large fish.
This genus was first known from Egyptian remains discovered in 1912 and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915.The original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the fossils reported in the scientific literature. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species S. maroccanus has been recovered from Morocco.
Spinosaurus may be the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, even larger than Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus. Estimates published in 2005 and 2007 suggest that it was 12.6 to 18 metres (41 to 59 ft) in length and 7 to 20.9 tonnes (7.7 to 23.0 short tons) in weight.The skull of Spinosaurus was long and narrow like that of a modern crocodilian. Spinosaurus is thought to have eaten fish; evidence suggests that it lived both on land and in water like a modern crocodilian. The distinctive spines of Spinosaurus, which were long extensions of the vertebrae, grew to at least 1.65 meters (5.4 ft) long and were likely to have had skin connecting them, forming a sail-like structure, although some authors have suggested that the spines were covered in fat and formed a hump.
Though not like those of the Permian mammal-like reptile Dimetrodon.The sail may have been a thermal regulator, releasing heat on hot days and absorbing heat on colder days. It also may have been used as a display to attract members of its own species and intimidate other species.
The skull had a narrow snout filled with straight conical teeth that lacked serrations. There were six or seven teeth on each side of the very front of the upper jaw, in the premaxillae, and another twelve in both maxillae behind them.
The second and third teeth on each side were noticeably larger than the rest of the teeth in the premaxilla, creating a space between them and the large teeth in the anterior maxilla; large teeth in the lower jaw faced this space. The very tip of the snout holding those few large anterior teeth was expanded, and a small crest was present in front of the eyes.Using the dimensions of three specimens known as MSNM V4047, UCPC-2, and BSP 1912 VIII 19, and assuming that the postorbital part of the skull of MSNM V4047 had a shape similar to the postorbital part of the skull of Irritator, Dal Sasso et al. (2005) estimated that the skull of Spinosaurus was 1.75 meters (5.7 ft) long. The Dal Sasso et al.
Skull length estimate was questioned because skull shapes can vary across spinosaurid species.
Naming of species
Two species of Spinosaurus have been named: Spinosaurus aegyptiacus (meaning "Egyptian spine lizard") and Spinosaurus maroccanus (meaning "Moroccan spine lizard").
The first described remains of Spinosaurus were found and described in the early 20th century. In 1912, Richard Markgraf discovered a partial skeleton of a dinosaur in the Bahariya Formation of western Egypt. In 1915, German paleontologist Ernst Stromer published an article assigning the specimen to a new genus and species Spinosaurus aegyptiacus.
Spinosaurus maroccanus was originally described by Dale Russell in 1996 as a new species based on the length of its neck vertebrae.Specifically, Russell claimed that the ratio of the length of the centrum (body of vertebra) to the height of the posterior articular facet was 1.1 in S. aegyptiacus and 1.5 in S.maroccanus.Later authors have been split on this topic. Some authors note that the length of the vertebrae can vary from individual to individual, that the holotype specimen was destroyed and thus cannot be compared directly with the S. maroccanus specimen, and that it is unknown which cervical vertebrae the S.maroccanus specimens represent. Therefore, though some have retained the species as valid without much comment, most researchers regard S. maroccanus as a nomen dubium or as a junior synonym of S. aegyptiacus.
Although traditionally depicted as a biped, it has been suggested since the mid-1970s that Spinosaurus was at least an occasional quadruped.This has been bolstered by the discovery of Baryonyx, a relative with robust arms.Because of the mass of the hypothesized fatty dorsal humps of Spinosaurus, Bailey (1997) was open to the possibility of a quadrupedal posture,leading to new restorations of it as such.
The hypothesis that Spinosaurus had a typical quadrupedal gait has fallen out of favor, though spinosaurids may have crouched in a quadrupedal posture.Theropods, including spinosaurids, could not pronate their hands (rotate the forearm so the palm faced the ground), but a resting position on the side of the hand was possible, as shown by fossil prints from an Early Jurassic theropod.
Spinosaurus was the apex predator of its time. It lived with sauropods, Carcharodontosaurus and large crocodiles like Sarcosuchus.
It is unclear whether Spinosaurus was primarily a terrestrial predator or a piscivore, as indicated by its elongated jaws, conical teeth and raised nostrils.
The hypothesis of spinosaurs as specialized fish eaters has been suggested before by A. J. Charig and A. C. Milner for Baryonyx. They base this on the anatomical similarity with crocodilians and the presence of digestive acid-etched fish scales in the rib cage of the type specimen. The only direct evidence for spinosaur diet comes from related European and South American taxa. Baryonyx was found with fish scales and bones from juvenile Iguanodon in its stomach,while a tooth embedded in a South American pterosaur bone suggests that spinosaurs occasionally preyed on pterosaurs.
Spinosaurus is believed to have eaten fish, but there has been controversy about a dinosaur of that size relying on just fish, no matter how big they were.
It is more likely that it preyed upon land animals and fish.
It’s no wonder Spinosaurus often makes film appearances, since this dinosaur flashed a million-dollar "smile." While most carnivorous dinos had curved teeth, the teeth of Spinosaurus were straight and probably functioned like knives, skewering often-slippery prey. Like modern grizzly bears, Spinosaurus probably spent a lot of time grabbing fish in, or near, water. A dinosaur of such girth, however, likely did not subsist on an all seafood diet. It probably killed and consumed smaller dinosaurs too, along with scavenging flesh from corpses.
Spinosaurus may have been the largest meat-eater to walk the Earth. At a jaw-dropping 17m long and weighing up to 20 tonnes, it was even larger than the mighty Tyrannosaurus. The story of this giant killing machine is a recent one.
Although bones were found and described between 1912 and 1915 in Egypt, it's only in the last few years that a skeleton has been reconstructed. It would have been a formidable predator of North Africa's giant fish 100 million years ago.
The long narrow skull is very similar to modern crocodiles and Spinosaurus lived and hunted in water and on land, as crocodiles do today. The most distinguishing feature of this enormous dinosaur were the 1.5m spines running along its back. They formed a sail that could have been used to regulate heat, to deter enemies or to attract potential mates.
The imposing dinosaur’s most unusual feature was its large sail. Whenever Spinosaurus would arch its back, the sail, made of lengthy spines covered with skin, would rise into the air. The sail alone was the height of a human basketball star. Paleontologists continue to debate its function, but most suspect the sail helped to regulate body temperature and was used to woo the opposite sex or to scare off competing males.
Such feasting would not have posed a challenge, since Spinosaurus possessed what was arguably the longest head of any known carnivorous dinosaur. Measuring close to 6 feet in length, the head featured a narrow snout — all the better for showcasing its straight teeth — with tiny ears on either side. Scaly skin covered its neck.
Few enemies probably dared to challenge Spinosaurus, considering that its large body could look even twice as big once its sail was instantaneously raised,scaring most would-be attackers. Humans turned out to be a significant threat, to its fossils at least, since a World War II bomb raid destroyed the first known Spinosaurus remains, which were collected by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer. Luckily, Stromer documented his find or else no one would ever have known about the distinctive dinosaur.
It was a long theropod. The teeth are different from other theropod teeth because they were conical, and the serrations (the cutting ridges along the sides) were very small. These tooth features, along with the shape of the skull bones, show that Spinosaurus is similar to Baryonyx. They are both part of the group Spinosauridae, but Spinosaurus belongs to a sub-group known as Spinosaurinae, while Baryonyx belongs to a separate group known as Baryonychinae, which have different features among their members.
Spinosaurus was bigger than T. Rex.
According with latest discoveries, Spinosaurus held some records in the "world's largest carnivorous dinosaur" category: full-grown adults outweighed Tyrannosaurus Rex by about a ton and Giganotosaurus by about half a ton.
Spinosaurus had a very large role in the third Jurassic Park movie, the only Jurassic Park film not based on a Michael Crichton book. It was seen fighting a Tyrannosaurus rex, though this fight could not have occured in the specified time period as the two dinosaurs lived During different times of the Cretaceous period. During the battle, the Spinosaurus locks its jaws onto the neck of the Tyrannosaurus then uses its arms to dislocate the neck causing the Tyrannosaurus to die. Earlier in the fight, the Tyrannosaurus bites down onto the neck of the Spinosaurus. This would have killed the Spinosaurus because of Tyrannosaurus's ability to use its jaws to crush bone.
Ever since Jurassic Park III was released,Spinosaurus has become a very popular dinosaur in pop culture.
Spinosaurus also appears in the video games Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis, Zoo Tycoon, Carnivores 2, and many more. It is also popular as a player made animal in "Zoo Tycoon 2".
Spinosaurus appears in Series 4 of Primeval and is inaccurately shown living in the same place as a raptor, and also having a skull more similar to Suchomimus.
It is also in Monsters Ressurected as the top predator.
Spinosaurus appears in Bizarre Dinosaurs which its sail's use is talked about.
Spinosaurus appears in the first episode of Planet Dinosaur as a first hunter and shown to hunt land animals if there is no aquatic animals to eat